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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

Wang Chunfa, executive secretary of the China Association for Science and Technology, has expressed deep concern over the retraction, which came just days after he met in Beijing with Arnout Jacobs, the head of Springer Nature for Greater China.

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想要工作稳定,最重要的是你与老板的关系。即使他跟你说:“我很想留住你,但是他们一定要让我辞退你。”这很有可能是假话。他才是那个下决定的人。
当我表示自己对一门很难的课程十分害怕时,我的指导老师问我:“那你还想不想接受教育呢?”
The average pay for executives in educational companies was the lowest, just over 2.8 million yuan and about one tenth that of their counterparts in the financial sector.

哥伦布日在1971年成为美国假日。银行、州政府办公室、邮局和联邦机构都会放假。债券市场休市,但许多商家和股票交易所继续开放。
Law
Holly Hunter reportedly keeps her best actress award, which she won for her portrayal of Ada McGrath in the 1994 New Zealand film, The Piano, at the New York offices of Joel and Ethan Coen. It sits alongside the statue Frances McDormand won for her role as the heavily-pregnant local police chief with the insatiable appetite, Marge Gunderson, in the Coens’ 1996 film Fargo.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

统计局:11月份全国城镇调查失业率为4.8% 同比降0.1%

The cost of living the Australian dream has surged with Sydney and Melbourne among the five most expensive cities in the world, outstripping most European and US locations, according to an annual survey released on Monday.
而在科隆游戏展上正式宣布的特色作品中,《寂静岭》(Silent Hills)的最新续集赫然在列。这是科乐美(Konami)最为畅销的恐怖题材游戏(还据此改编成了两部电影)。世界级游戏和电影专家,《合金装备5:幻痛》(Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain)的制作者小岛秀夫,以及《环太平洋》(Pacific Rim)的导演吉尔莫o德尔o托罗在这部游戏中强强联手。曾出演美剧《行尸走肉》(The Walking Dead)的影星诺曼o瑞杜斯将在游戏中担纲主角。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

2013 Rank: 12
据Birinyi收集的数据,下面是今年迄今已经获得授权的5大回购。
Brazil's President Dilma Rousseff, who is facing impeachment, slashed her own salary by 10% to $103,400 a year last October as part of a wider austerity drive.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 联系方式:Staci Donegan and Peter Westley, Celia Dunn Sotheby’s International Realty, (912) 247-2052 / (912) 660-5169; celiadunnsir.com
  • 棚改降温对企业债的直接影响有限
  • adv.
  • 京城住宅改善存量触底 谁来做补量者?
  • 7月份建材行业运行情况
  • An early iteration of Summly, called Trimit, was featured in Apple's app store in July 2011 on a list of new and noteworthy offerings. There it was noticed by the influential Silicon Valley blog TechCrunch and quickly came to the attention of an investment group led by Li Ka-shing. When D'Aloisio was approached over email by Li's people at Horizons Ventures, he was only 15-and so far mostly managed to conceal that fact. He'd never met with anyone in the tech world face to face, and the information he'd listed when he registered Trimit spoke only vaguely of a London technology company. It failed to mention that the company's management and technology teams-in fact, its entire workforce-consisted of a single kid in a suburban bedroom who wasn't yet old enough to drive.
    5. Life is like a coffee table: it’s got tea sets and dinnerware all over it. (beiju, 杯具, is a homophone for tragedy, 悲剧, and dinnerware, canju, 餐具, a homophone for disaster, 惨剧).

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 6月财新中国制造业PMI升至50.4 重回扩张区间, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

鹤岗安置房万元一套 是个案还是普遍现象?

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

央视二套栏目证实“水龙头都铅超标”是假的

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 图表二显示的是实际联邦基金利率(计入通胀因素后)和实际自然利率。可以再次看到,当联邦基金利率高于自然利率时,新兴市场危机更为常见。
    但现实远比他想象的艰难。雷文斯克罗夫特表示:“我曾以为这就是一个机会,要花掉两年,但现实是严峻的,因为这活不好干。”此外,他的导师在雷曼兄弟(Lehman Brothers)工作,这家银行于2008年破产。他大笑着说:“这段指导关系持续的时间没有我希望的那么长。”
  • 单词prosperity 联想记忆:
    "Those who disrupt testing and harm the equity of education by cheating will get the punishment they deserve," the ministry said.
    Need to send gigantic files (up to 2gb) quickly? Try WeTransfer.com. You don’t even have to create an account. I use it almost every day.
    ?Bond has been attacked in innumerable ways and survived everything. Of course, this is because he's fictional. It is interesting to note that research shows masculine men are hardier. In fact, being un-masculine can be lethal for males. (Maybe it's all those orgasms keeping him alive. I doubt he'll die of a heart attack or prostate cancer.)
    会。梅亚德是执政党革命制度党(PRI)的候选人。他主要的竞争对手是强硬的左翼领导人安德烈斯曼努埃尔洛佩斯奥夫拉多尔(Andrés Manuel López Obrador)——可以感召人群的激情演说家。梅亚德需要克服很多问题:在去年1月一夜间把油价上调20%、引发通胀飙升后,他必须说服选民自己仍然是可以信任的。他还必须证明自己是个有主见的人,而不仅仅是这届不受欢迎的政府的傀儡——在遏制猖獗的腐败和犯罪行为方面,这届政府极为失败。但是凭借强大的PRI拉票机器,他可能势不可挡。在墨西哥只有一轮选举的体制下,30%的选票可能就足以让他当选总统了。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 2017年上半年板材行业七大关键词
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 美克家居上半年净利同比增逾35%

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

6.Head-Mounted Computer Displays
周一晚间,安卡拉方面证实,不欢迎荷兰驻土耳其大使返回土耳其。
n. 硅
One difficulty in assessing the potential for ETFs in Asia, say experts at the largest asset management houses, is both the disproportionate size of the Japanese market within the region and the role played by the Bank of Japan, which distorts the market as it buys ¥6tn ($54bn) of ETFs a year.
In the Robot World Cup Soccer final on June 30th the Dutch robots weren’t up against the Chinese team “Water” from Beijing. Within a minute the Chinese team scored a goal. The Dutch made an equalizer before half-time, yet in the second half team Water scored again.
Gunmen kidnapped 18 Turkish workers Wednesday in Iraq's capital.
Will the Saudi Aramco public offering debut on an international market

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 今年,竞争最激烈的职位--中国民主同盟中央委员会接待处--有大约10000人参与竞争。
  • 未来十年OLED照明迎繁荣期 2023年总产值超460亿
  • 4. 西班牙企业学院
    One of the designer's most important companions in later life was his Birman cat Choupette, who he has called his one true love and said he would marry if it were legal.
  • 房企加大亲子配套投入 儿童社区渐成楼市新宠
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 银行家们表示,音乐流媒体服务Spotify计划最早第四季度在纽约证券交易所(NYSE)直接上市其现有的非公开发行股票,而不走正式的IPO程序,而其他大型知名科技公司则被视为更有可能在2018年上市。
    Over the three-year period we examined, late arrivals actually declined during the Thanksgiving travel season — just 12 percent of Thanksgiving flights were delayed last year, compared with 19 percent in 2010. according to the Transportation Department.
  • 去字典里查一下“side-splitting humor”(令人捧腹大笑的幽默感)这个词,你可能会看到《嗨翻姐妹行》的预告片,这是2017年最搞笑的电影,没有争议。
    不会。默克尔可能会接受一支规模较小的欧元区投资基金,但这满足不了这位法国总统的雄心。马克龙想要的是“路线图”,指明如何实现一份相当于欧元区经济产出一定百分点的预算,由一名财政部长监督,完全用于缓冲经济震荡。默克尔想要答应,但她在联邦选举后政治地位受到削弱,因此无法勉强基本上持怀疑态度的德国民众接受这样一个决定。
  • 德系三巨头:由于奔驰的几款低价产品不可避免地会损害它“要么最好,要么什么都不是”(the best or nothing)的商誉,该公司也开始陷入低迷。而即将推出的新7系轿车则会进一步巩固宝马在美国富人圈中的地位。另外,起价30,795美元的奥迪A3,很可能会使奥迪的销量较2014年增长15%,新款Q7也将进一步提高奥迪的利润。
    enterprise
  • n. 预定,保留意见
    巴西政府动用数十亿资金建立新球场或扩建现有球场已触发众怒,并导致票价飞涨,这是路人皆知的事情。对此,一些球迷抱怨,曾经负担得起的现场体验变得更加昂贵,想要去诸如马拉卡纳等传奇球馆的热情也变淡了。
    Whatever the underlying cause, last year’s extreme warmth in the West meant that Alaska, Arizona, California and Nevada all set temperature records. Some parts of California essentially had no winter last year, with temperatures sometimes running 10 to 15 degrees above normal for the season. The temperature in Anchorage, Alaska’s largest city, never fell below zero in 2014, the first time that has happened in 101 years of record-keeping for the city.
  • The result has been increased ratings this regular season. Everything has been flipped. The offseason is thrilling, "stay on your phone every second checking what's happening" drama. The regular season is fascinating and competitive, with superstar matchups and explosive performances every night. The playoffs? Ho-hum, the Warriors win again. What's interesting is that this might be an actually better growth strategy for the league. A dynamite dynasty to attract the casual viewers who only want to see greatness, a super-compelling offseason and intriguing regular season to keep the die-hards engaged. It flips the standard models on their heads, but it also makes the best use of the NBA's ever-expanding digital presence.
    她说,在人民币升值的同时,与中国在旅游业方面构成竞争关系的国家(如日本)的货币贬值,这意味着到其他一些亚洲国家旅游的费用更加便宜,而来中国旅游更贵了。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 评论:关于中国楼市的一些思维定势未必理性 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

闷声大发“体育”财的LED照明企业 冬奥会有哪些不同的效益?

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

“骚扰营销”很初级 家居企业品牌建设之路漫漫

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

被住建部约谈的海口三亚整顿楼市:3个楼盘被查封关闭网签

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

三友制漆 济南圣泉等150家企业上环保黑榜

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 5) I take a gloomy view of things 0 1 2 3 4
  • n. 宪章,特许,(船、机、车等的)租赁
  • 2016年中国建筑陶瓷业相关政策法规分析

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 现代中国经销商Wang Rongzhen7月20日向路透社指出,现代汽车已经缩减提供给中国进口经销商的产品阵容,仅提供一款车型供销售,而在中国国产的车型不断增加。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • Of course, these same new forces may also trigger a backlash and a reversion to old command-and-control ways of leading. The politicians who dominate the world stage are, depressingly, mostly cut from the old cloth, and the leadership challenges they face, from Brexit to North Korea, are particularly complex.
    当然在接下来的一段时间中里还有很多事情要解决,还会有更多的推测,更多的享受。祝我们所有的读者度过一个安全愉快的假期,迎来一个崭新快乐的篮球之年。
    Consumers are feeling better. Consumer confidence is at the highest level in four years, thanks to improvements in jobs, housing and the stock market. In the wake of the recession, Americans whittled down their debts, avoided borrowing and delayed purchases. That means the stage could be set for stronger consumer demand, which could nudge businesses that have put off hiring to add more workers. 'Business has likely pushed productivity growth as far as possible,' Principal Global's Mr. Baur says, suggesting employers will need to boost payrolls to meet stronger demand.[qh]
  • 但近2/3(65%)的福音派白人新教徒认为这些暴风雨是“末日”即将到来的证据,就如《圣经》中预言的那样。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • Although Downey has a few movies coming out next year, they’re much smaller than his superhero films. He won’t see another huge payday until 2015 when Avengers: Age of Ultron hits theaters.
  • 中消协:已向华帝公司发出约谈函 约谈工作在准备中
  • 2.别迷恋哥,哥只是个传说。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 电商交易信用危机日益突出 卫浴企业凭诚信立足
  • Household substance abuse
  • 门窗行业立足2016、展望2017
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

家居建材企业掌握品牌价值变革是品牌塑造的重点

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • IMF:香港明年GDP预计增幅2.5% 房地产市场需调整
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 天津一大厦起火已致10人死亡
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

effective

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

萝丝王
While people in first-tier cities are under more pressure, smaller cities may not be the ideal place to live either, according to the 2016 Annual Report on Social Mentality of China by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.
Friends wasn't known for being the most diverse show on television at the time, since the cast was comprised of almost entirely white actors. None of the main characters were anything other than "mainstream." Even the acknowledgement of Ross's first wife Carol being a lesbian was met with jokes about sexuality (mostly from Joey), and sexist comments were frequently incorporated into the script.
年龄:39岁
韩云平表示,去年全国的质量监督部门共提交了36000起和违反质量标准有关的案件,涉及金额达23亿人民币(约合3.33亿美元)的货物。
For generations, working-class whites were doubly blessed: they enjoyed privileged status based on race, as well as the fruits of broad economic growth.
"This year is a key period for Tibet's war against poverty. We will continue mapping out policies and plans in accordance with varying situations and causes of poverty and increasing funds," said Lu.
预测:达福目前可能是最佳男配角的领跑者。
格温o史蒂芬尼的广告在好几个应用上同时推出,其中就有总部位于硅谷的短信应用Tango。Tango主要通过用户收件箱里的广告赚钱,但它已采用了Swyft的平台,该公司广告和平台副总裁理查德o拉百特表示,这类广告非常契合人们使用Tango的方式。一年前,Tango决定不再卖贴纸了,因为向用户要钱总会带来很多摩擦。拉百特称:“在人们沟通过程中放上一道‘留下买路钱’的大门绝不是我们希望带给用户的体验。”所以,就由Swyft来提供这种广告吧。
In a bid to raise awareness of one of the world's most endangered species and the Chengdu Panda Base in China, the 108 performers were hard to miss as they entertained Londoners and children during school visits with conservationist and base ambassador Nigel Marven.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

国土部:政府将不再垄断居住用地

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 你可能觉得我们对于列清单的爱好是从“十诫”继承而来,但安伯托·艾柯( Umberto Eco)的说法却正相反,“清单是文化的起源”,他写过一本书,《无限的清单》(The Infinity of Lists),书中在讨论自己熟悉的东西时这样说道。而且,文化希望“让无限变得可以理解”,并且“创造秩序——不是永远如此,但通常都是这样”,所以才有了荷马在《伊利亚特》中的人名清单,以及你冰箱上贴着的,永远做不完的家务清单。“我们喜欢清单,因为我们不想死,”艾柯还说,这可能是对“清单体”(listicle)的最佳解释了。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 吉密欧(Jamil Anderlini)
  • 2016过半除了价格涨了 二手房市场还发生了什么
  • 无论是过去还是现在,都有一系列通过煽动攥取权力的例子。
  • 新个税法将实施 央行摸底房贷利息
  • 法国的巴黎高等商学院(HEC Paris)和法国高等经济商业学院(Essec Business School)连续第三年分列第二和第三。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 深圳楼市现“失控”风险 政府无意干预房价
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 9.Beating Hearts Created In A Petri Dish
  • 以下是五个脱颖而出的、值得在2014年加以关注的初创企业。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

救市政策透支楼市需求 大萧条或在明年初到来

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